Werbach, Melvyn: Nutritional influences on aggressive behavior. J Ortho Med 1995; v.7, no. 1. Evidence is emerging that iron deficiency among adolescent males has been shown to be directly associated with aggressive behavior.

Schoenthaler, SJ, Bier ID: The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on juvenile delinquency among American schoolchildren:a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med 2000; 6(1):7-17. Numerous studies conducted in juvenile correctional institutions have reported that violence and serious antisocial behavior have been dramatically reduced after implementing nutrient dense diets.

Walsh,W: Zinc deficiency, metal metabolism, and behavioral disorders. Report of the Health Research Institute 1995. This study focuses on persons born with a metal-metabolism disorder often resulting in episodic violence, hyperactivity and conduct disorder.

Sever Y, Ashkenazi A, Tyano S, Weizman, A: Iron treatment in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A preliminary report. Neuropsych 1997; 35(4):178-80.A study of 14 boys aged 7-11 years using iron for therapeutic treatment of hyperactivity. The report recommends further study based on the finding that increased blood iron resulted in the reduction of aggressive behaviors.

Department of Family Medicine, Pomeranian Medical Academy, Poland: The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with ADHD. Mag Res 1997; 10(2):149-56. The report from this institute states that dietetic factors can play a significant role in the origin of ADHD and that magnesium deficiency can result in disruptive behaviors.

Schoenthaler S: Vitamins Against Crime: Supplementation and antisocial behavior in institutions. Medical Nutrition 1990; 34-37. Brain function requires adequate nutrition, and correction of chronic undernutrition can improve antisocial behavior. Researchers have found that vitamin and mineral tests can be a good indicator of violent behavior.

Sanstead H: A brief history of the influence of trace elements on brain function. J Clin Nutrit 1986; 43:293-98. Historically iron, copper, manganese and zinc deficiency have been associated with mental impairment. Manifestations of such deficiencies include confusion, violence, dullness and death.

Schoenthaler S: Applied nutrition and behavior. J Applied Nutr 1991;43(1):31-39. This research showed that nutrient dense diets in 813 state facilities resulted in significantly improved conduct. The distribution of vitamin and mineral supplements was a significant factor in promoting less violent behavior.

Schrauzer G, Vroey E: Effects of nutritional lithium supplementation on mood. Biological Trace Element Res 1994; 40:89-101. The results of an intensive study of former drug users, violent offenders or those with a history of domestic violence assert that lithium supplementation has a mood improving and stabilizing effect. Authors suggest that a nutritional lithium supplement may be a valuable drug in violence and suicide prevention programs.

Lonsdale D, et al.: J of Advancement of Medicine 1994; 7(3):171-180. A review of the potential for high calorie malnutrition as a link for senseless violence and crime. The author asserts that if it is true that body chemistry plays a role in abnormal behavior, that it is largely a waste of time to treat violent criminals by incarcerating them and ignoring the critical factor of their diet.

Walsh W, et al.: Elevated blood copper/zinc ratios in assaultive young males. Physiology and Behavior 1997; 62(2)327-329. Stresses the importance of the study of different metal ratios and their association with behavior in an effort to identify those with increased risk. Improvement in biochemistry in these individuals is seen as very beneficial.

Carney MWP: Vitamin deficiency and mental symptoms. British Journal of Psychiatry 1990;156:878-882. Study reveals that 53% of unselected patients admitted to psychiatric hospital unit were vitamin deficient. Vitamin B deficiency has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and depression. Additionally, folic acid deficiency has been linked to affective illnesses.

Gottschalk L, et al.: Abnormalities in hair trace elements as indicators of aberrant behavior. Comprehensive psychiatry 1991; 32(3):229-237. The authors suggest that abnormal trace mineral metabolism may be involved in aggressive behavior and that careful mineral analysis could be effective in identifying those who are predisposed to such behavior.

Rosen GM, et al.: Iron deficiency among incarcerated juvenile delinquents. J Adolesc Health Care 1985;6:419-423. This study from 1985 can be viewed as one of the early looks at the effects of iron deficiency and abnormal behavior. Through research performed in juvenile detention facilities, a high prevalence of iron deficiency was found among both male and female inmates. The study suggests further research into the problem of behavior issues and iron deficiency.

Lead Exposure and Child Behavior: American Journal of Public Health 1992; 82(10):1356-1359. This study evaluated blood lead levels of young children. The group with the highest levels of lead present in blood samples was found to score the highest in Total Problem Behavior Score checklists.

Stevens L., et al.: Phospholipids influence behavior. The Nutrition Report 1996;38:(May-June). A study performed on equal number of young boys, half with low fatty acid measures, showed that behavior problems were significantly higher in the study group with the lower acid levels. Greater number of health and learning problems occurred in the lower level group as well.

Magnesium reduces hyperactivity. Autism Research Review 1998;12(2):4. Children in this study were ages 7 to 12. After a 6-month period, the control group, which received no magnesium supplementation, was found to have behavior that worsened, whereas the other children receiving magnesium supplementation therapy had statistically improved results in behavioral assessment scales.

Walsh W, et al.: Elevated blood copper/zinc ratios in assaultive young males. Physiol Behavior 1997;49(1):327-329. Research spanning a period of 20 years has revealed abnormal trace metal concentrations in violence prone young males 3-20 years of age. This study tested the validity of the observation that young assaultive males have elevated blood copper/zinc levels when compared to those with no history of assaultive behavior.

Schmidt K, et al.: Clinical ecology treatment approach for juvenile offenders. J Behav Ecology:Biosocial 1981:2(1). It was found through this study that hair copper levels of young males classified as delinquent, was found to be at a higher level than lab norms.

Lonsdale D, Schamberger R: Red cell transketolase as an indicator of nutritional deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 1980;33(2):205-211. In a study of patients with biochemical evidence of thiamine deficiency related to junk food diets, the adolescents especially were found to be impulsive, irritable, aggressive and angered easily.

Schrauzer GN, Shrestha KP: Lithium in drinking water and the incidences of crimes, suicides and arrests related to drug addictions. Biol Trace E.em Res 1990;25(2):105-113. Data collected from 27 counties in Texas, when adjusted for population density, show that the incidence of homicide, suicide and rape were significantly high in areas where the drinking water contained little or no lithium. Results of this study suggest that low level doses of lithium have a beneficial effect on human behavior.